«THE PECULIARITIES OF RENEWAL CONTENT OF PRIMARY EDUCATION»
"To be educated is to be able to discover the unknown"
Features of the organization of the educational process as part of updating the content of education. The first bell this year announced the beginning of educational reform in Kazakhstan: from that day, the republic’s schools switched to the new educational standard adopted in most advanced countries of the world - 12-year education. This process is accompanied by significant changes in pedagogical theory and practice. The basis has been prepared for a phased transition to the updated content of school education.
Kazakhstan pedagogy should have some changes, experiences of world pedagogy, according to our president's strategic plan. He defined main directions of our country's development.
Education is an important sphere of human activity, the most important resource of country. In the plan of the Nation "100 concrete steps", in an important document for the people of KZ, steps are also envisaged to update the content of education. They include such issues as phased implementation of 12 year education, updating of school education standarts for the development of functional literacy, the introduction of a new model of multilingual education in high school and universities, and others.
With the help of a new content of school education, at the center is the development of literacy, the skills of independent search, critical thinking and evaluation, so that a person who has knowledge becomes person who can think, act, develop creatively.
According to the well-known in the world pedagogy of the Taxonomy of the Learning Objectives of Benjamin Bloom, the existing standart allows the pupil to master only 2 out of 6 levels of knowledge- "know" and "understand". The new standart will allow you to achieve the remaining 4 levels of knowledge: "apply", "analyze", "synthesize", and "evaluate", a system of criterial evaluation will be intoduced.
A lot of teachers have been trained on updating the content of education. In this process the important thing is that school infrastructure develops.
There are some positive changes in this direction:
- 3 shift schools has decreased;
- the deficit of pupils has been reduced;
- basic schools have been established;
- increased the number of new modified rooms.
4 key changes of updating educational system in KZ are:
- criterial evaluation system;
- stage by step to floating;
- five day schooling;
- reduction of the number of home tasks.
The State Standard for Primary Education has been adopted. A full-scale translation of the NIS experience is being carried out. The new integrated educational program is focused on the development of children's abilities to apply knowledge and skills in real practice. 16 types of knowledge and skills of a successful person in the 21st century are designated. These are teamwork skills, leadership skills, initiative, competence, financial and civic literacy, and others. But the essence of the reform, of course, is much deeper. Updating the structure of education consists in overcoming the traditional reproductive style of education and the transition to a new developing, constructive model of education, which provides cognitive activity and independent thinking of schoolchildren, which develops the child’s desire to seek additional information and thereby develop independently.
1 stage of secondary general education (grades 1-4).
The age of the beginning of training is 6 years. Duration of study - 4 years.
The main purpose of the 1st stage is to create a pedagogical environment for cooperation between the student and teacher, as equal subjects of the educational process, during which the teacher provides pedagogical support to the student in revealing the learner's personality and acquiring opportunities for self-realization. In understanding the knowledge about the surrounding reality and the formation of desire and ability to learn, i.e. the creation of genuine cognitive motivation, necessary at the subsequent stages of training. In the formation of elementary school students holistic learning activities.
The teacher is guided by the following objectives:
- Organization of the educational process, taking into account the objectives of the educational area;
- designing the educational process with a focus on solving problems training, education and development;
- regulation of student learning activities material aimed at self-acquisition subjectively new knowledge and skills;
- creating conditions for the organization of development of students, meeting their educational needs / needs;
- providing conditions for stimulating positive emotions students from achieved results, from comprehension of value the meaning of acquired knowledge and skills;
- expansion of the educational space of students;
- assessment of current results for timely correction of training.
In this case, the student gains the opportunity to satisfy interests and thereby
to understand, comprehend, accept the surrounding reality and successfully achieve the planned results - learning objectives (student activity):
- motivation for self-education, self-education and self-development;
- self-organization and self-management of educational activities;
- assimilation of knowledge, skills of a subject;
- development of key and subject competencies;
- building an individual learning path in accordance with own interests;
- using the capabilities of information training tools, textbooks and educational-methodical complexes, software;
- self-esteem and self-correction of performance results.
According to the authors of the reform, a model of the educational process in the 12-year-old school should be formed based on the tiered, variable the content of education, reproductive orchestration and creatively transform learning technologies on the basis of cooperation of a teacher and a student. As part of updating the content of education one of the priority aims of education is determined by the development of students’ functional literacy. Functional literacy as a learning outcome is generated by each academic school subject. Tools of the development of students’ functional literacy, as well as the formation of its audit assignments are creative nature (research task, entertaining character, the task of the economic, historical content, practice-tasks, and etc.).
The measures to update the content of national secondary education are a central focus on the skills that have a wide range of applications in modern life a creative application of knowledge; critical thinking; implementation of research; the use of ICT; the use of communicative methods of communication, including language skills; ability to work in a group and individually. Based on universal and ethno-cultural values, these skills allow the student to solve problems as a school, and the nature of life.
School in the conditions of renovation is different in that educational achievement which have a productive nature, and the learning process is characterized by vigorous activity by the students themselves "gaining" of knowledge on each lesson. Under these conditions, the student the subject of knowledge and the teacher is the organizer of the cognitive activity of students. Thus, the education of the Republic of Kazakhstan is in modernization. Significant place is given to update its content in the modernization of general secondary education, bringing it into line with the requirements of time and prospects of development of society.